Remittances Review

ISSN:2059-6588 | e-ISSN: 2059-6596

ISSN:2059-6588 | e-ISSN: 2059-6596

Framing Civil-Military Relations: A Content Analysis of Pakistani Print Media from 2008 to 2018

Dr. Hassan Siddique, Umer Farooqi , Imran Sanaullah
Pakistani print media, civil-military relations, content analysis, newspaper editorials, framing, ideological perspectives ,


This research paper explores the role of Pakistani print media in framing civil-military relations from 2008 to 2018. The study adopts a content analysis methodology to examine the frames assigned to newspaper editorials during this time period, which was chosen due to its significance in Pakistan's history with two democratically elected governments completing their tenure and numerous civil-military events and developments. A purposive sample of editorials from four Pakistani newspapers was taken, including two English language newspapers (The Dawn and The Nation) and two Urdu language newspapers (The Jang and The Nawa-i-Waqt), representing different ideological backgrounds. The selection of these newspapers was based on their circulation, known policy perspectives, and comprehensive representation of the Pakistani press. The findings of the study have important implications for understanding the relationship between the media, civilian government, and military institutions in Pakistan. The research reveals a pro-civilian tilt in the Dawn Newspaper and emphasizes civilian supremacy in the selected newspapers' editorials. However, Jang Newspaper maintained a relatively neutral position in many cases, while other newspapers demonstrated a more pronounced tilt. A comparison between Urdu and English newspapers revealed that English newspapers showed a higher preference for pro-civilian directions, possibly catering to an international readership, while Urdu newspapers exhibited less inclination to criticize the military, targeting readers within Pakistan. Additionally, English newspapers were more reluctant to take a pro-military stance compared to Urdu newspapers, indicating potential differences in policy and editorial approaches between the two language categories. Interestingly, the coverage of all the newspapers remained somewhat similarly between both part tenures (Pakistan Peoples Party, 2008 to 2013 and Pakistan Muslim League Nawaz (2013 to 2018) which shows that media remained consistent in it’s portrayal of civil-military relations in Pakistan.