Remittances Review

ISSN:2059-6588 | e-ISSN: 2059-6596

ISSN:2059-6588 | e-ISSN: 2059-6596

Understanding the Factors that Contribute to the Social Exclusion of Older Women in the District of Gujrat, Punjab Pakistan

Mehwish Mobeen, Dr. Paris Zaka Ullah, Rao Safder Ali, Dr Ayesha Chaudhary, Shamaila Khalid, Moniba Fatima
Social exclusion, Older women, Psychological effects, Health, Public attitudes ,


The research aims to “Understanding the Factors that Contribute to the Social Exclusion of Older Women in the District of Gujrat, Punjab, Pakistan”. Globally, the population of older women is increasing, and also a growing urgency in the policy literature to understand numerous issues older women face. The social exclusion of older women provides an opportunity to understand the inequality of various factors and the disadvantages among vulnerable populations. Limited research has been done on how different factors cause older women's exclusion, especially in rural areas. This research examines how psychological factors, poor health, public attitudes, and life status cause older women to be excluded. A quantitative approach was applied to evaluate the research, conducted in the Gujrat District. For collecting data, the researcher assembled the interview technique and developed a questionnaire as an instrument. A purposive sampling technique was used to select the sample from a target population, which consisted of older women aged 45 and above in district Gujrat. The sample size consisted of 300 older women. The researcher examined the association between these variables by using correlation and simple linear regression analysis (SLRA). The findings from the correlation and regression analyses revealed a statistically significant and positive relationship between the dependent variable (women exclusion) and the independent variables (poor health, psychological effects, public attitudes, and life status). The study concluded that women's exclusion was due to poor health conditions, psychological effects, public attitudes, and social standing, as women in patriarchal societies have very few resources to survive, which explains why they are excluded in every aspect of life. Therefore, these factors must be eradicated and women must be treated equally with males; this will require a significant effort from all members of society.